In addition to the provisions of the original NAFTA, the USMCA draws heavily on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) trade agreements. On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and join Canada.  The agreement entered into force on 1 July 2020.     A new addition to the USMCA is the inclusion of Chapter 33, which covers macroeconomic policies and exchange rate issues. This is considered important, as it could set a precedent for future trade agreements.  Chapter 33 sets out monetary and macroeconomic transparency requirements that, if violated, would create a remedy under Chapter 20.  The United States, Canada and Mexico currently meet all of these transparency requirements, in addition to the substantive political requirements that are consistent with the articles of the International Monetary Fund Convention.  Under the leadership of President Donald J. Trump, the United States renegotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement and replaced it with an updated and rebalanced agreement that works much better for North America, the Agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada (USMCA) that entered into force on July 1, 2020. The USMCA is a beneficial asset for both parties for North American workers, farmers, ranchers and businesses. The agreement creates more balanced and reciprocal trade, which supports high-paying jobs for Americans and the North American economy is growing. The Agreement between the United States of America, the United Mexican States and Canada, commonly known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), is a free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and the United States to succeed NAFTA.
   The agreement was referred to as « NAFTA 2.0″ or « New NAFTA » because many nafta provisions were included and its amendments were considered largely incremented. On July 1, 2020, the USMCA came into effect in all member states. There are three primary dispute settlement mechanisms that are included in NAFTA. Chapter 20 is the resolution mechanism from one country to another. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms and was maintained in the USMCA in its original NAFTA form. Such cases would involve complaints between USMCA member states for violation of a provision of the agreement.  Chapter 19 deals with the justification of anti-dumping or countervailing duties. . . .